AAR New Website

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African Journal of Rhetoric Volume 9


Table of Contents

Editorial Notes………………………………………………………………………………. vii



Wangari Maathai’s African Feminist Environmentalism…………….. 15

Omedi Ochieng




Petrus Mbenzi


The Shifting Ethos in Directed Presidential Rhetoric

In Post-Apartheid Governance………………………………………………………. 60

Johann C de Wet



Re/Writing Rhetorical Histories of How

African Woman (Can) Govern……………………………………………………….. 82

Tarez Samra Graban



Advancing Pharmacogenetics through Health in Africa……………… 119

Earl Etienne, Adaku Ofoegbu, Mary Maneno, La’Marcus Wingate,

Gorgia Dunston, Philip Kurian, Bradford Wilson, Kevin Nguyen,

Ginikannwa Ezeude and Jeronimo Augusto


Conquering the UNKNOWN enemy:

Sirleaf’s Evolving Rhetorical Leadership During

Liberia’s Ebola Crisis……………………………………………………….. 143

Julia A. Spiker




The New Black Consciousness and the Old White

Rhetoric of Privileged Propriety………………………………………………… 177

Kermit Campbell

practitioner’s notes



Paul I. Kay Onifade



The Case of Cecil the Lion…………………………………………………………. 211

Barry Brummett



‘Exploring the Ethics of Individualism and Communitarianism:

Multidisciplinary Essays in Honor of

Professor Segun Gbadegesin,’

Enoch Olujide, Yunusa Salami and Kola Abimbola…………………….. 224

Omedi Ochieng


2017 Poster

AAR 10th Anniversary Conference

The Manhattan Hotel, Pretoria

The African Association completed its 10th Anniversary conference with renewed vision and vigor for the future. The Project that started at the University of KwaZulu-Natal on 3rd July, 2007, has grown and transmigrated to different locations within the continent of Africa and elsewhere. The first conference at the Malherbe Library, UKZN, considered the subject, Rhetoric, Protests and the Economy. This was a time when the frequency of protests in South Africa was as high as 6500 a year. Perhaps the highest in the world. Since then, the Association has dealt with other themes such as, Rhetoric in the Time of AIDS: African ‘Perspectives, Intercultural Negotiation of the Global Space: African Perspectives, Rhetoric and Political Leadership, Transitions and Transformative Rhetoric, Rhetoric, Transformational Leadership and W. E. B. Du Bois, The Rhetoric of Good Governance, and in 2017, Media, Rhetoric and Development in Africa.

This year’s conference was jointly organised by the African Association for Rhetoric (AAR) and some members of the Department of English, University of South Africa (UNISA). The faculty members include Dr Josephine Alexander (co-convener), Dr Raphael D’Abdon (co-convener), Professor Mike Masemola, and Professor Mirriam Lephalala (HoD), Professor Chaka Chaka, Dr Ntombi Mohlab-Tlaka, Dr Clifford Sibusiso Ndlangamandla and Mokgadi Joyce Seshibedi. Representing the African Association for Rhetoric (AAR) are Dr Earl Etienne (Howard University) and Dr Segun Ige, President of the African Association for Rhetoric (AAR), also faculty member at Howard University.

Keynote Speakers at this year’s conference include: Professor Pius Adesanmi, Director of African Studies and Professor of English, Carleton University Ottawa, Mr Fred Khumalo, Author and Columnist; Professor Gilbert Motsaathebe, UNISA, Emirates, and Professor Mpho Chaka, University of the North West. Scholars and researchers came from different parts of continent. For the first time, delegates came from Kenya, East Africa. These include: Dr Racheal Diang’a, Dr Murej Mak’Ocheing and Dr Ruth Aoko Owino. Professor Jairos Kangira, Dean of Humanities, University of Namibia and Dr Rewai Makamani, the Polytechnic Namibia, two founding members of the African Association for Rhetoric (AAR) also made sterling contributions to this year’s edition. Dr Enna Sakutai Gudhlanga, Open University Zimbabwe also presented on a memorable topic: ‘Knock, knock, knock. . . ’ Although some scholars could not make it, Dr Olugbenga Elegbe, a faculty member in the Department of Communications and Language Arts, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, was comfortable participating via skype. Dr Tyechia Lynn Thompson , Howard Faculty member presented on Mixtape.


Many Scholars from South African institutions also participated. Dr Musawenkosi Ndovu, University of Cape Town, Dr Adebayo Fayoyin, UNFPA, Dr John Hurst, President, AFDA Council Professor Puleng Segalo, Dr Naomi Nkealah, Dr Chilombo Mbenga and Dr William Mpofu. Also honored at the Gala Dinner, were Professors Ari Sitas and Dasarath who were instrumental the founding and establishment of the African Rhetoric Project, at UKZN, and for strategy and operations, the Association gave awards to Mr Obed Qulo and Professor Timothy Quinlan [in absentia] whose contributions help to consolidate activities of the Association.

Numerous suggestions and recommendations for future projects and activities were made by the Keynote Speakers and Roundtable Panelists.

The Conference was sponsored by the National Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences and African Journal of Rhetoric (AJR).


2016 Rhetoric Conference in Namibia



The influence rhetoric has on socio-political reality is unquestionable. The question of virtue and vice arises in Africa in a quest to explore the role rhetoric plays in the process of enhancing responsible leadership and good governance on a continent riddled with a plethora of governance related problems. On virtue and vice, Aristotle argues that the forms of virtue on which praise and blame find their basis are justice, courage, temperance, magnanimity, liberality, gentleness, prudence and wisdom. These values resonate with a number of principles of good governance and democracy that have been prescribed, for instance, by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the European Commission, the Independent Commission on Good Governance and Lord Nolan’s Seven Principles of Public Life. The underlining question for this Conference is: What role should rhetoric play in fostering good governance in Africa?

This Conference seeks to bring together rhetoricians, eminent intellectuals, researchers, government operatives, diplomats and industry professionals to contribute to the conversation on the proposed conference theme. Submissions should address but not be limited to the sub-themes listed below. Each paper will be considered on its own merit. Refereed papers from the conference will be considered for publication in the Association’s scholarly journal: African Journal of Rhetoric (AJR).

The organising committee would like to emphasise that the Conference of the African Association for Rhetoric is a multidisciplinary, multisectoral event. We seek participation from individuals and scholars representing all disciplines and sectors, all who seek to contribute to engagements in and around rhetoric, public communication, Development, leadership and transformation in society.

• Rhetoric for governance in public and private spheres
• Rhetorical presidency and good governance
• Parliamentary discourses/debates as a factor of good governance
• Rhetoric and good governance for sustainable development in Africa
• Opposition rhetoric and good governance in Africa
• Rhetoric in advertising and marketing
• Rhetoric, Social Media and E-government
• Rhetoric in the healthcare systems in Africa
• Rhetoric and traditions forms of good governance in Africa
• Governing systems – democracy, communism, socialism, autocracy
• Rhetoric and the media and its role in fostering good governance
• Rhetoric, climate change, hospitality and tourism in Africa
• Diplomacy, African conflict resolution mechanisms and rhetoric
• Religion, rhetoric and good governance
• The rhetoric of spin doctors and good governance

Venue and accommodation
Kalahari Sands Hotel, Independence Street, Windhoek Namibia
Kalahari Sands Hotel is right in the Central Business District of Windhoek, the capital city of Namibia.

Delegates should arrange their accommodation with the Hotel. The Hotel can also organize shuttles from Hosea Kutako International Airport which is 40 kilometres from Windhoek.

4-6 July 2016

Registration Fees
Faculty: R3000
Students: R1500
[Includes conference package, teas and lunches]

Abstracts of between 250 and 300 words should be addressed to: babeukes@unam.na
Ms Bronwen Beukes will receive them and forward them to conference organisers for review.

Deadline of Abstracts: 28 August 2015

Call for Papers ISHR 2015 Tubingen Conference

International Society for the History of Rhetoric

Biennial Conference

Tübingen, Germany
28-31 July 2015

The Twentieth Biennial Conference of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric (ISHR) will be held in Tübingen, Germany, from Tuesday, July 28 to Friday, July 31, 2015.

The Society calls for papers that focus on the historical aspect of the theory and practice of rhetoric. The special theme of the conference will be “Rhetoric across Cultures.”

For more details, for the Call for Papers in several languages, and an on-line submission form click on the Conference site: http://www.ishr-conference.org/. Members pay reduced conference fees!

The deadline for submissions is May 4, 2014.

With best wishes,

Manfred Kraus, President ISHR

Transitions and Transformative Rhetoric(s)

Call for Papers

One salient construct has received significant definition in most discourses on Africa: that of a continent perpetually in a state of transition. What, however, has received little attention is the supposed object of transition – that is, the transformation that transition promises. An examination of rhetoric(s) of transformation on the African continent reveals a deeply contested field. In East and some parts of West Africa, rhetoric(s) of transformation are often invoked within the context of developmental politics, specifically, political promises of infrastructural and modernist futures. In Southern Africa, calls for transformation have emerged often in emotive debates over the need to address historical racial injustices. In Northern Africa, transformation is now the site of mortal conflict over democracy, religion, and imperialism. The 5th conference of the African Association for Rhetoric (AAR) seeks precisely to contribute to the current dialectic between transition and transformation.


This conference seeks to bring together eminent intellectuals, researchers, rhetoricians, government operatives, diplomats and industry professionals to contribute to the conversation on the proposed conference theme. The addressed by submissions should include but not limited to the subthemes listed below. Each paper will be considered on its own merit. Refereed papers from the conference will be considered for publication in the Association’s publication: African Journal of Rhetoric (AJR).


The organising committee would like to emphasise that the conference of the African Association for Rhetoric is a multidisciplinary, multisectoral event. We seek participation from all disciplines, sectors and scholars who seek to contribute to engagements in and around rhetoric, public communication, leadership and transformation in society.



  • Defining the Rhetoric of Transformation or transformative rhetoric within a socio- political process
  • Rhetoric, Transitions and Political complications
  • Formations and Transformations in the Uses of Rhetoric in Africa
  • Philosophical and Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Transformation in Africa
  • Political Transitions and Institutional Transformation
  • Transition, transformation and Presidential Rhetoric
  • Transitions and Institutional Agency: Changes in Media and the Economic Sector
  • Impact of Transitions in North Africa on Other African Countries
  • Imagining a New Africa: The Rhetoric of Transformation in Literature and Oratory
  • Political Operatives as Agents of Change: Transformational Leadership and Transformational Change
  • Rhetoric and the Notion of Transitional Justice
  • Rhetoric, Transformation and Economic Development in Africa
  • Transition, Transformation and Civil Society
  • The Intellectual and the Political Process: Rhetoric of Transformation in Knowledge Production



The Cape Sun Hotel, Strand Street, Cape Town


2-4 July 2014


Registration Fees:

Faculty R2500

Students: R1500

Deadline of Abstract:

January 30, 2014

Submission of papers:

April 30 2014


About the African Association for Rhetoric (AAR)

  • The African Association for Rhetoric (AAR) is a body of scholars that conducts research into the performance of rhetoric and public discourse. The African Association for Rhetoric (AAR) has since 2007 organised successfully four international conferences and a Roundtable under the Theme: Africa’s Responsibility to Africa. The Association has two major publications, African Journal of Rhetoric (AJR: SAPSE Accredited) and Balagha: African Rhetoric Quarterly. The Association has a growing membership across the globe. For further information, please contact: aar.southafrica@gmail.com


Targets: Representatives from different disciplines

  • Media
  • Politicians
  • Government
  • Civil Society / NGO
  • Educational sector
  • Presidency
  • Funders
  • Diplomatic community
  • Graduate Students

 Conference and Presentation format:

Keynote presentation normally lasts for an hour: 45 minutes will be allocated for paper presentation and 15 minutes for discussion. Other paper presentations will only last 30 minutes per speaker: 20 minutes for paper presentation and remaining 10 minutes for discussion.



The Communique will be in form of a declaration on the resolutions from the colloquium, which will be published in relevant media outlets.



The African Association for Rhetoric (AAR) has successfully managed to establish its publications and a track record of producing and dissemination knowledge through its main publications: African Journal of Rhetoric and Balagha: African Rhetoric Quarterly. Summaries of papers presented at the conference will be published in Balagha, while refereed paper will be published in the African Journal of Rhetoric (AJR). So far, 2 volumes of the African Journal have been published and four issues of the Balagha: African Rhetoric Quarterly have been published. AJR is a print journal while Balagha is an online only journal. Balagha is available online at: http://www.afrhet.org.za